Attorney, lawyer, barrister和solicitor有什么區別

???????? 可能沒有哪個職業的抬頭會像‘律師’這樣分得這么細。在法律英語中,Attorney, lawyer, barrister和solicitor這幾個詞被使用的比較頻繁,有時候它們之間甚至可以互換。不過這些詞每個都有自己獨特的含義。

???????? 1. Attorney或者attorney-at-law, 中文意思是律師或者法律代理人。是指可以接受當事人的委托并有資格在法庭上代表委托人,并以委托人的名義參與案件的申辯。

???????? 2. Lawyer, 這個詞我們都是直接把它譯成‘律師’,它的定義是指受過專門的法律培訓,在法律事務上提供法律建議和幫助的人。因為lawyer可以在法庭審理程序中參與訴訟,并且在各個不同的審理階段代表客戶。所以lawyer一詞超出且覆蓋了attorney的含義。在美國,lawyer和attorney這兩個詞被認為是同義詞。

???????? 3.? barrister和solicitor的區別 在英國和在香港,律師的抬頭就更加細分了。律師分為兩種,solicitor是普通事物律師或簡稱為律師,其職責大體上是處理各種法律文書,接受各種訴訟委托,準備庭審所需的各種文件,其出庭的發言權是受到限制的;只有所謂的大律師或大狀(barrister)才在所有法院享有不受限制的出庭發言權,可在庭上與原告律師或控方(the Prosecution/prosecutors)唇槍舌劍,展開辯護(advocacy),但他們不能直接與訟人/當事人接觸。市民有意聘用大律師要先行與律師(solicitor)接觸,搜集案件的證據和會晤證人等事,是由律師辦理的。

Lawyer 律師 (MP3)

Lawyer 律師

1. A barrister has right of audience in any court in England and Wales.

律師有權在英格蘭和威爾士的任何法院出庭。

2. A lawyer shall not represent both parties involved in the same case.

律師不得在同一案件中,為雙方當事人擔任代理。

3. A lawyer should assist in maintaining the integrity and competence of the legal profession.

律師應該幫助維護律師界的正直和業務能力。

4. A lawyer should assist in preventing the unauthorized practice of law.

律師應當幫助防止非法執業。

5. A lawyer should assist the legal profession in fulfilling its duty to make legal counsel available.

律師應幫助律師界履行其提供法律顧問的義務。

6. A lawyer should avoid even the appearance of professional impropriety.

律師應避免出現不正當業務現象。

7. A lawyer should exercise independent professional judgment on behalf of a client.

律師應代表當事人獨立進行法律轉移判斷。

8. A lawyer should preserve the confidences and secrets of client.

律師應當為當事人保密。

9. A lawyer should represent a client competently.

律師應當稱職的擔任當事人的代理。

10. A lawyer should represent a client zealously within the bounds of the law.

律師應當在法律范圍內熱忱的為當事人代理。

11. Can you contact the solicitors representing the vendors?

你能與代表賣方的律師聯系嗎?

12. Counsel is instructed to settle the defense.

律師接受指示處理辯護事項。

13. Counsel for the plaintiff opposed the defendant‘s application for an adjournment.

原告律師反對被告的休庭申請。

14. Counsel for the prosecution opened with a description of the accused’s family.

起訴方律師開始發言時對被告的家庭背景做了描述。

15. Counsel must not lead the witness.

律師不得誘導證人。

16. Counsel pleaded the accused’s age in extenuation of his actions.

律師以被告年齡為由要求減輕其行為過錯。

17. Counsel prevailed upon the judge to grant an adjournment.

律師勸說法官休庭。

18. Counsel questioned the reliability of the witness evidence.

律師對證人證詞的可靠性表示懷疑。

19. Counsel raised a point of law.

辯護人提出了一個法律問題

20. Counsel stated that there was no case to answers, but the judge demurred.

律師聲明沒有必要進行答辯,但法官表示不同意。

21. Defense counsel made a speech in mitigation.

為獲判刑被告律師做了發言。

22. Defense counsel put his case.

辯護律師提出他的論點。

23. He has set up in practice as a solicitor.

他已是一個開業“初級律師”

24. He is a partner in a law firm.

他是律師事務所的合伙人。

25. He was denied the right to see his lawyer.

他被剝奪了會見律師的權利。

26. Sound legal advice depends upon the lawyer being fully informed by the client.

好的法律咨詢意見取決于律師是否能從當事人處獲得充分信息。

27. The accused decided to dispense with the services of a lawyer.

被告決定不要律師的服務。

28. The solicitor attempted to have the charge dropped.

初級律師試圖使原告撤訴。

29. The solicitor paid the fine on behalf of his client.

初級律師代表訴訟委托人支付了罰款。

30. The solicitor sent an extract of the deeds.

初級律師寄出一份契據的摘錄本。

法律英語聽力MP3合集

Insurance 保險 Real property 不動產
Process 傳票 Judge 法官
Law 法律 Court 法庭
Citizens’ right 公民權利 Company law 公司法
International law 國際法 Negligence 過失行為
Partnership 合伙 Contract and agreement 合同和協議
Environment protection 環境保護 Marriage and family life 婚姻和家庭
Prosecutor 檢察官 Traffic 交通
Encumbrance 財產負擔 Police 警察
Jurisprudence 法理 Lawyer 律師
Offense 犯罪 Instrument 票據
Jurisdiction 管轄權 Appeal 上訴
Customs and tariff 海關和關稅 Death penalty 死刑
Settlement 和解 Costs 訴訟費
Shipping and maritime law 貨運和海商法 Juvenile delinquency 未成年人違法
Loan and lease 借貸和租賃 Punishment 刑罰
Legislation 立法 Remedy 救濟
Jury 陪審團 Contempt of court 藐視法庭
Tort 侵權 Bankruptcy 破產
Trial 審判 Tax 稅收
Pleading 訴辯狀 Litigation 訴訟
ownership 所有權 Agency 委托代理
Consumer’s right 消費者權益 Trust 信托
Criminal law principles 刑法原則 Criminal investigation 刑事偵察
Medical care 醫療保健 Duty 責任
Transaction 業務交易 Bidding 招投標
Plaintiff and Defendant 原告和被告 Intellectual property 知識產權
Debt 債務 Will and Succession 遺囑和繼承
Securities 證券 Gift 贈與
Arbitration 仲裁 Evidence 證據

Law, Lawyer and Law Firm的準確用法

稍微細心的朋友也許可以發現,在Law, Lawyer和Law Firm這三個詞上,總是鬧出一些讓人哭笑不得的笑話。這三個詞的意思其實很清晰,但對于英語基礎不是特別扎實的朋友,還是要多注意它們之間的區別。

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一、Law – 法律的統稱

以前可以看到很多律師或律所把“law”這個詞當作“律師”使用,如在他們的名片背面,中文“經濟律師”對應的是英文單詞組合“ECONOMIC LAW”; 通常“law”沒有律師的含意,在用法上也不能作為“律師”一詞來這樣使用。只有在某種特定的情形下,才有律師的意思潛在其中,如“practise the law”–執行法律事務,其中含有“律師”的意思。因為律師,尤其在英美法律國家,檢察官、律師本身均可稱為律師,也是執行法律事務的。

二、Lawyer – 律師

通常大家都認為“律師”對應的英文單詞是“lawyer”,這沒有錯。但它的使用是有區分的,并且不能使用“law”來替代。 Lawyer也是attorney, solicitor, barrister, counselor ( or counselor), advocate等的通稱。

Attorney n 代理人、(小)律師、訟師、辯護士。用法:an attorney represents his client–律師代表當事人 美式英語用法。早期在英國-檢察總長;在美國-司法部長。

Solicitor 英國-初級律師 美國-法務官

Barrister 英國-大律師、辯護士

Counsellor ( or counselor) 英國-大律師、辯護士 私人顧問、愛爾蘭、美國-辯護士

Advocate 辯護士、代言人、擁護者、提倡者 用法:advocate revolution–鼓吹革命

The Bar ?

1)、(法庭中的)圍欄、

2)、律師職、律師界

用法:bar 一詞本身沒有律師的意思,只有加定冠詞并大寫時才有上述兩層含意。 如,be called to the Bar–取得律師資格、做律師

三、Law Firm – 律師事務所

在2000年以前,在不少地方的律師事務所的名片上都可以看到“*** lawyer’s office”,這種用法在英文中根本沒有,它讓人感受的意思,是律師辦公地點,即我們稱的“律師樓”。 而現在內地律師事務所的英文所名均采用“***law firm”,這才是正確用法。

但值得注意的是,這種情形的律師事務所規模較大,含有“集團”的意思在其中。而內地有不少律師事務所只有3-5人,用此名稱與實不符。還有就是,司法行政機關設立的鄉鎮法律服務所不能使用“law firm”。

這些最普通的表達可以反映出我國司法從業人員的素質。當然隨著時代的邁進,這種錯誤出現的幾率比起以前要少很多了。

lawyer是‘律師’最好的翻譯嗎?

隨著經濟的發展,接觸涉外案件的機會也越來越多。中國的律師喜歡用‘lawyer’來介紹自己。甚至有人認為用以表示“律師”的英文單詞,非lawyer莫屬。其實,與“律師”相對應的單詞有很多,那哪一種翻譯最貼切呢?現在就讓我們一起來了解一下吧!

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Advocate是指學習法律、依法獲準執業、為當事人提供法律意見,并有資格出庭參加案件公開審理的律師,即辯護律師(在英美不常用);又指法國、英格蘭等地律師、法律顧問。Advocate是法國律師統稱。

Agent ad litem訴訟代理人,常用于書面用語。

Attorney一詞廣泛用于美國,指授權為當事人代理案件的律師;英格蘭法律中,attorney一詞指Westminster地區普通法高等法庭的公共官員(public officer)。

Attorney at law一詞經常與attorney一詞互用,用法同attorney-at-law。

Attorney in fact指法庭外接受委托的律師,也稱為lawyer in fact。

Bar是律師的全稱概念,與法官對應。各地律師協會一般用bar association表達。

Barrister一詞源自英格蘭法律,多用于英國、新加坡等國和香港地區,又稱大律師、辯護律師,指有資格出席高等法院法庭的律師。類似稱呼還有barrister, counsel和barrister-at-law。與之相對應的是solicitor。

Barrister in chambers指出庭律師工作室。英國的出庭律師不準合伙開業,所以他們通常數人共同租一個工作室(chamber),提供法律服務。通常一個工作室有15個出庭律師。

Benngoshi日本人對律師的稱呼,也稱為“辯護士”。

Counsel指接受指派,專門為個人、公司和政府公務部門提供法律服務的人,稱為法律顧問。美國憲法第6、第14修正案和聯邦法庭規則中均有the right to counsel的規定,即刑事被告有權因經濟困難而要求法庭為其指派辯護律師。可見counsel也有律師之意。

Counsel pro hoc vice指僅僅代理某案件的律師。

Counselor經常與counsel或counselor at law互用,多指從事出庭訴訟的律師。

Counselor-at-law又拼為counselor at law用法同counselor和counselor at law。

Defense counsel指辯護律師。主要用于美國,是對律師的尊稱,多以縮寫形式出現,加在律師姓名之后,如John Smith Esq., Yajun Ge Esq.。

Family lawyer理解為家庭律師,有點私人律師的意思。

Gentleman of the (long) robe是對律師的比喻性稱謂,不直接修飾某律師。

Government lawyer指政府律師。

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多種多樣的律師稱謂

關于律師的稱謂可謂多種多樣,在此對各詞的內涵與區別做一簡單介紹。

Solicitor與barrister是英國對律師的分類,solicitor譯為“事物律師”,其與客戶直接打交道,barrister譯為“出庭律師”。(詳見barrister和solicitor區別

Associate一詞在美國指“受雇律師”,即受律師事務所雇用的、非合伙人的律師。

Attorney一詞在英國現已罕用,在美國,該詞在一般意義上既指律師,與attorney at law或counselor at law同義。

Counsel一詞有律師之意,指代表當事人參與訴訟或者代表或協助客戶處理有關法律事物(如參與談判、起草文件等)的律師。在英國指的是出庭律師(barrister).