談判一項協議 Negotiating an agreement

精挑細選的法律經典翻譯范文,值得廣大法律英語和法律翻譯愛好者學習珍藏。
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信托 擔保交易 國際商業 如何談判協議
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日本的調解制度 損害賠償的種類 契約簡論 契約入門
經濟合同的訂立和履行 必須以書面訂立的合同 要約 銷售法

Whether you are negotiating a multimillion dollar deal to ship goods internationally or simply arranging for the purchase of office supplies, enter the contract negotiations with a clear idea of your goals.?從事契約談判,要對自己的目標有一個明確的設想- 不論所談判的是一筆價金在數百萬或上千萬美元的國際貨運交易,還只不過是一筆設法采購辦公室用品的交易。

Agreement和Contract可否互換?

在法律英語中,經常接觸到contract和agreement這兩個詞,它們都有“合同、合約和協議”的意思,那在翻譯的時候,它們是否可以互相取代呢?

我們先來看一下它們的定義,

何謂”contract”?

   1999年中國《合同法》第二條對contract定義為: A contact in this Law refers to an agreement establishing, modifying and terminating the civil rights and obligations between subjects of equal footing, that is, between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations”.根據這一定義,合同是平等主體之間設立的確定民事權利和義務的協議。

Steven H.Gifts編著的”Law Dictionary”中將contract 定義為”contract is a promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives remedy, or the performance of the which the law in some way recognize as a duty.”根據這一定義,合同是一種承諾,違反承諾可以得到法律救助,某種意義上法律將 履行該承諾看做是一種補償。

  L.B Curzon 在其編撰的字典”A Dictionary of Law”給contract的定義:”Contract is a legally binding agreement”根據這一定義,合同就是有法 律約束力的協議。

  綜合起來,有一個相同點,就是”Contract is an agreement”,即可將合同說成是”An agreement which binds the parties concerned”或者說合同說成是”An agreement which is enforceable by law”,也可以說:Contracts are promises that the law will enforce.

?

何謂”Agreement”?

  L.B “A consensus of mind, or evidence of such consensus, in spoke or written form, relating to anything done or to be done.”根據這一定義,協議是對已經做或準備做的相關事宜,經過談判、協商后取得一致意見,以口頭或書面形式做出的約定。

   Black “Law Dictionary”有兩個定義。一個是:”A concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performance”根據這一定義,協議即雙方或多方京某些過去或將來某些事實的相關權利、義務或相關權利、義務的履行而達成的一致理解和愿望。

   另一個是:”The consent of two or more persons concurring respecting the transmission of some property, right or benefits, with the view of contacting an obligation, a mutual obligation.”根據這一定義,協議即兩個或多個當事人,為了約定單方責任或相互責任,就財產權利、利益的轉移取得的一致同意。

Contract和Agreement的組成條件

Contract:

  合同的成立必須具備幾個主要因素。它們(要約和承諾構成的)協議、約因、設立法律關系的愿望和締約能力四大部分組成。

  L.B Curzon編著的”A Diction of Law”提到:”Contract generally involves”:

  1.offer and absolute and unqualified acceptance (要約和絕對接受);

  2.consensus ad idem (意思表示一致,也叫meeting of minds);

   3.intention to create legal relations(建立合同關系的意愿);

  4.genuineness of consent(同意的真實性);

  5.contractual capacity of the parties(合同當事人的締約能力);

  6.legality of object(標的物的合法性);

   7.possibility of performance(履行的可能性);

  8.certainty of terms(條款的確定性);

  9.valuable consideration(等價有償)。

  

Agreement:

Black ‘Law Dictionary” 中解釋道:Although often used as synonyms with “contract”, agreement is a broader term, e.g.an agreement might lack an essential element of a contact.”即”協議”和”合同”經常用作同義詞,但”協議”這一術語含義更廣,例如協議可能缺乏合同的必備條款(essential clauses/provisions)。

  實際使用當中,協議可不受必備條款的限制,而稱為合同的文體肯定少不了必備條款,有的合同將其單列,稱為一般條款(General provisions)。

  1999中國《合同法》第十二條規定了八項一般條款,分別是:

   1.title or name and domicile of the parities(當事人的名稱或姓名和住址);

   2.contract object(標的);

  3.quantity(數量);

  4.quality(質量);

   5.price or remuneration(價款或者報酬);

  6.time limit, place and method of performance (履行期限、地點和方式);

  7.liability for breach of contract(違約責任);

  8.methods to settle disputes (解決爭議的方法)。

  

??????? 上述解釋說明,contract(合同)和agreement(協議)的概念雖然接近,但使用范圍不同,不能互換使用。合同是協議的重要組成部分,所有合同一定是協議,而協議不見得都是合同。可以說具備合同成立要求的具有強制執行力的協議才是合同

Contract and agreement 合同和協議 (MP3)

Contract and agreement 合同和協議

1. A contract cannot arise out of an illegal act.

違法行為不能構成合約。

2. A contract is established when the acceptance becomes effective.

承諾生效即合同成立。

3. A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.

當事人協商一致即可以變更合同。

4. A person is not liable for debts contracted during his minority.

一個人無須對他在未成年時期的合同債務承擔責任。

5. A transaction between two parties ought not to operate to the disadvantage of a third.

合約不約束第三人。

6. An acceptance once given cannot be revoked unless the offeror consents.

除非要約人同意,承諾一經做出即不得撤銷。

7. An acceptance is a statement made by the offeree indicating assent to an offer.

承諾是受要約人同意要約的意思表示。

8. An offeror may withdraw an offer at any time before it has been accepted.

在要約被受要約人接受以前,要約人可以隨時撤回要約。

9. Any amendment to this contract shall become effective only by a written agreement by Patry A and Party B.

對本合同的任何修改,只有經甲、乙雙方簽署書面協議后方能生效。

10. Any annex is the integral part of this contract.

本合同一切附件均為本合同的有效組成部分。

11. Any departure from the terms and conditions of the contract must be advised in writing.

任何與合同條款相背離的地方,都必須以書面形式通知。

12. Any failure by a party to carry out all or part of his obligations under the contract shall be considered as a substantial breach.

一方當事人不履行本合同的全部或部分義務應被視為是根本違約。

13. Any party has no right to terminate this contract without another party’s agreement.

未經另一方當事人同意,任何當事人均無權終止合同。

14. Any violation of deadlines contained in the contract will equate to breach of contract.

凡違反合同規定的任何期限都等同違約。

15. Contract law is initially concerned with determining what promises the law will enforce or recognize as creating legal rights.

合同法首先涉及確認哪些許諾可以作為創設的法律權利而由法律強制實施或承認。

16. Examples of void contracts are those entered into as a result of misrepresentation, duress or undue influence.

無效合同可以是因虛假陳述、強迫或不正當施壓而簽訂的合同。

17. He is incompetent to sign the contract.

他沒有簽署合同的行為能力。

18. He reasonably believes that there will be a fundamental non-performance of the contract by the other party.

他有理由認為對方當事人根本不會履行此合同。

19. He signed a covenant against under letting the premises.

他簽署了一個反對廉價出租屋的契約。

20. He was incapable of fulfilling the terms of the contract.

他沒有能力履行合同條款。

21. If a contract becomes invalid, the validity of its independently existing clauses pertaining to the settlement of disputes shall not be affected.

合同無效并不影響合同中獨立存在的有關解決爭議方法的條款的效力。

22. If a minor ratifies a contract upon reaching the age of majority, he or she is then bound to it.

如未成年人在達到法定年齡時追認合同,他/她便應受合同之約束。

23. If any of the above-mentioned clauses is inconsistent with the following additional clauses, the latter is to be taken as authentic.

以上任何條款如與下列附加條款相抵觸,以下列附加條款為準。

24. If there are provisions as otherwise stated in respect to contracts in other laws, such provisions shall be followed.

其他法律對合同另有規定,應依照這些規定。

25. If there is no acceptance, by definition there is no contract.

按照定義,沒有承諾合同便不能成立。

26. In case of heavy losses, failure of a party to fulfill the obligations prescribed by the contract or force majeure, the contract may be terminated.

如發嚴重虧損,一方不履行合同規定的義務或不可抗力等,可提前終止合同。

27. Lawfully established contracts shall be protected by law.

依法成立的合同受法律保護。

28. Marine insurance contracts are indemnity contracts and require the parties to exercise the utmost good faith.

海上保險合同屬于賠償合同,要求雙方當事人盡到最大善意的義務。

29. No changing or modification of this Agreement shall be valid unless the same is made in writing.

本協議之修改必須作成書面始生效力。

30. No consideration, no contract.

無對價不成立。

31. Other special terms will be listed bellow.

其他特別條款羅列如下。

32. Party A and B have reached an agreement through friendly consultation to conclude the following contract.

甲、乙雙方,經友好協商一致,訂立此合同。

33. Parties hereto may revise or supplement through negotiation matters not mentioned herein.

本合同如有未盡事宜,雙方可協商修訂或補充。

34. Payment will be held up until the contract has been signed.

付款將延期到合同簽訂。

35. Please amend your copy of the contract accordingly.

請將你的合同副本做相應地修正。

36. Promises resulting from either express or an implied agreement can be enforced.

明示協定或默示協定所產生的允諾都可具有強制力。

37. She did not abide by the terms of the agreement.

她沒有遵守協議的條款。

38. The agreement is binding on all parties.

該協議對各方當事人都有約束力。

39. The agreement of the parties is subject to review and approval of the board of directors.

當事人的協議須經董事會的審查和批準。

40. The conditions of the contract are still to be determined.

合同條件還有待確定。

41. The contact has been engrossed ready for signature.

合同已正式寫成等待簽署。

42. The contract has to be signed in the presence of two witnesses.

該合同必須在有兩個證人在場的情況下簽署。

43. The contract was declared null and void.

合同被宣告無效。

44. The contract was annulled by the court.

合同被法院廢止。

45. The express agreement of parties overcomes the law.

雙方當事人的明示協議優先于法律。

46. The following documents shall be deemed to form and be read and construed as an integral part of this contract.

下列文件應被當作、理解和解釋為本合同的組成部分。

47. The issue of this action is the date of the contract.

本案爭論點是合同的日期。

48. The parties may dissolve the contract upon consensus through consultation.

當事人協商一致,可以解除合同。

49. The parties shall, when making a contract, have corresponding capacity for civil rights and civil conduct.

當事人訂立合同,應當具有相應的民事權利能力和民事行為能力。

50. The parties to a contract shall fully fulfill their obligations pursuant to the terms of the contract.

合同的雙方當事人應當按照合同條款,充分地履行各自的義務。

51. The parties to the contract have equal legal status, and neither party may impose its will in the other.

合同雙方當事人法律地位平等,一方不得將自己的意志強加給另一方。

52. The use of a prescribed contract form can reduce the uncertainty.

格式化合同的采用可以減少不確定性。

53. They took the unilateral decision to cancel the contract.

他們單方面決定撤消合同。

54. This Agreement and the schedules hereto constitute the entire agreement between the parties relating to the subject mater hereof.

本協議及其附件構成雙方關于本協議標的之完整協議。

55. This contract is executed in three counterparts, all of which are considered as originals and of the same effect.

本合同一式三份,均應視為原件,具有同等效力。

56. This contract will be effective after being signed by both parties.

本合同一經雙方簽字后立即生效。

57. This offer will be lapsed automatically after the time limit.

這項要約在期限過后,便會自動失效。

58. We hereby revoke the agreement of May8,2004.

這項特此宣告2004年5月8日的協議無效。

59. What is left unmentioned in contract may be added there as an appendix.

本合同未盡事宜,可由雙方增補作為合同附件。

60. You have to get the permission of all the signatories to the agreement if you want to change the terms.

如果要改動條款,你必須獲得協議所有簽署者的允許。

法律英語聽力MP3合集

Insurance 保險 Real property 不動產
Process 傳票 Judge 法官
Law 法律 Court 法庭
Citizens’ right 公民權利 Company law 公司法
International law 國際法 Negligence 過失行為
Partnership 合伙 Contract and agreement 合同和協議
Environment protection 環境保護 Marriage and family life 婚姻和家庭
Prosecutor 檢察官 Traffic 交通
Encumbrance 財產負擔 Police 警察
Jurisprudence 法理 Lawyer 律師
Offense 犯罪 Instrument 票據
Jurisdiction 管轄權 Appeal 上訴
Customs and tariff 海關和關稅 Death penalty 死刑
Settlement 和解 Costs 訴訟費
Shipping and maritime law 貨運和海商法 Juvenile delinquency 未成年人違法
Loan and lease 借貸和租賃 Punishment 刑罰
Legislation 立法 Remedy 救濟
Jury 陪審團 Contempt of court 藐視法庭
Tort 侵權 Bankruptcy 破產
Trial 審判 Tax 稅收
Pleading 訴辯狀 Litigation 訴訟
ownership 所有權 Agency 委托代理
Consumer’s right 消費者權益 Trust 信托
Criminal law principles 刑法原則 Criminal investigation 刑事偵察
Medical care 醫療保健 Duty 責任
Transaction 業務交易 Bidding 招投標
Plaintiff and Defendant 原告和被告 Intellectual property 知識產權
Debt 債務 Will and Succession 遺囑和繼承
Securities 證券 Gift 贈與
Arbitration 仲裁 Evidence 證據