法律英語中撇號(’)的幾個簡單使用規則

不管是以英語為母語的人還是以非英語為母語的人,撇號都經常被錯誤的使用。但是這些錯誤能夠通過以下幾個簡單的規則來避免。

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撇號有兩種用途

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第一種用途是表示一個單詞的縮寫,或者兩個單詞的結合。

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例如:legaltranz.com is a good website, so don’t hesitate to visit it.

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法律英語翻譯網是一個不錯的網站,所以別猶豫,來訪問它吧。

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用撇號來縮寫單詞的使用方法在法律英語寫作中并不常見,因為這種縮寫在大部分情況下被視為不夠正式。

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第二種用途是用來表示所屬關系。表示某樣東西屬于某人或其它某物。

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例如:The client’s payment was late.

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客戶的付款延遲了。

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當超過一個人擁有某樣東西時,把撇號放在‘s’后面。

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例如:The clients’ payments were late. 客戶們的付款延期了。

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當然,你也可以用另一種方式表達這個意思:The payments of the clients were late. 但從現代英語的角度看來,這種表達不夠簡練。

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當使用its時,要注意。只有在it isit has的縮寫時,才使用撇號。

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例如:It’s a straightforward case.

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當把its作為所屬關系來使用時,撇號應該省略掉。

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例如:Legaltranz.com has its advantages.

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6 steps to write a good legal brief

A legal brief is a document used to submit an argument to a court. Briefs are generally written by lawyers and are intended to persuade the court to rule in your favor on a particular issue. Here are a few tips to help you write an effective legal brief.

Step 1

Prepare a caption. Court rules state that every pleading should contain a caption including the name of the court, the title of the action, the file number and names of the parties.

Step 2

Begin with a preliminary statement. This should identify the party submitting the brief and inform the court of the relief requested. Generally, a preliminary statement should be kept short and provide the court with enough information to understand the issues to be addressed in the brief.

Step 3

State the facts relevant to the brief. Facts should not be misrepresented, but can be presented in a way that is favorable to your argument. Be sure to cite to the record to support these facts.

Step 4

Make your argument. This is the part of the brief where you present your case. Analyze why the law supports the relief you are requesting. Apply the law to your set of facts and cite to cases that support your position. Generally, you should make your strongest arguments first, followed by secondary relevant arguments.

Step 5

Acknowledge the counter-argument. It won’t help your case to ignore any valid arguments that can be made by the other side. Address these arguments and explain to the court why your case is different. Distinguish any relevant cases that do not support your argument on their facts.

Step 6

Conclude your brief. Tell the court what relief you are seeking and ask for that relief.

Tips & Warnings

1. Try to keep your brief brief. Courts appreciate brevity and clarity.

2. Avoid legalese and incivility.

法律英語中的破折號和連字符應該在什么情況下使用?

在法律英語寫作中,我們經常會遇到的破折號和連字符,應該在什么情況下使用才得當呢?

破折號 Dashes

有兩種情況,我們可以使用破折號。

1. 把一個從句放在兩個破折號之間。

例如:Very few – in fact almost none – of the lawyers working in this city haven’t been to legaltranz.com to study legal English.

上面例句中使用破折號可以使句子的意思清晰,而沒有在此處用可能會使意思混淆的逗號。

2. 一個長的破折號可以用來作為’to’的替代。

例如:The proposed route is Helsinki — New York — Helsinki.

連字符 Hyphens

使用連字符的情況也有兩種。

1. 當第一個單詞是第二個單詞的前綴時,用連字符把兩個單詞合起來。(特別是在英國英語中)

例如:Pre-trial, non-statutory. 這類詞在美式英式英語中通常就是一個單詞,中間沒有連字符:pretrial, nonstatutory.

2. 用在由一個以上單詞構成的形容詞短語上。

例如:health-care provider or real estate purchase.

專利申請/專利權轉讓合同翻譯模板

專利申請/專利權轉讓合同

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茲有轉讓方的專利申請/專利:

專利申請號:_______________ 專利申請日: ________________________

專利申請名稱: ____________________________________________________________

愿將上述專利申請的全部權益轉讓給受讓方。

轉讓方(簽章): ??????????????????????受讓方(簽章):

(原申請人/專利權人)

轉讓方法人代表(簽章): ??????????????受讓方法人代表(簽章):

年 月 日 ??????????????????????????????????????????????? 年 月 日

ASSIGNMENT CONTRACT

I/We, the assignor, the owner of the patent application

Patent Application Number: _________________ Filing Date: ___________________

Title: ________________________________________________________

do hereby assign all of our share to the rights and interests in relation to the above identified patent application in the People’s Republic of China to the assignee as listed below.

By Assignor:???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????By Assignee:

Signature of the Legal Representative of???????????????????????????????????Signature of the Legal Representative

of the Assignor: ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? of the Assignee:

_www.ppzljb.tw______________???????????????????????????????????__law.legaltranz.com____________

Dated this: _________________??????????????????????????????????????????????? Dated this: _________________

法律英語中使用句號的四種情形

英國英語管句號叫full stop, 而美國英語稱之為period. 句號主要在以下四個場合使用。

第一種場合:在非疑問句和感嘆句的句尾。通常句號后面的下一個字母是有大寫字母開頭。

第二種場合:在縮寫后。如:’Sun. 10 August’.

第三種場合:當句子以引用語結尾,并且該引用語自身已經帶了句號,問號或者是感嘆號,那么這里就不再需要使用另一個句號了。但是,如果引用語本身很短,而且整句話比引用語更加重要的時候,可以在引號外面加一個句號。如:

On the door were written the words ‘no entry’.

第四種場合:連續三個句號表示下文的省略。這個時候如果加上第四個句號則表示整句話的結束。如: ‘legaltranz.com … is exceptionally useful … I visit it every day.’

法律英語中圓括號和方括號的使用

圓括號 Parentheses

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圓括號主要是用來裝短語或整個句子。如果整個句子都在圓括號里面,那么這個句子結尾的標點符號也要在圓括號里面。例如:(Legaltranz.com is hereinafter referred to as ‘Legaltranz’.)

如只有句子的結尾部分在圓括號里面,那么這個句子結尾的標點符號就要在圓括號的外面。例如:Legaltranz.com (hereinafter referred to as ‘Legaltranz’).

圓括號使用的主要場合如下:

1. 把作者的備注或摘要放在圓括號里面。如:’Mr X (as I shall call him) then stood up to speak’.

2. 把權威引用、定義、解釋、參考或者翻譯放在圓括號里。

3. 在演講報告中,把被觀眾打斷的情況放入圓括號中。

4. 把作為參考的字母或者數字放入圓括號中。如:’(1)(a)’

不要在圓括號中使用圓括號 – 使用逗號或者破折號來代替。用破折號來把句子里的概念分開是一個很有用的方法。

方括號 Square brackets

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方括號用來放入由新作者或編輯之后加入的(而不是原始就有的)評論、更正、解釋或注釋。

在法律英語寫作中,方括號用來調節引述材料的格式。如用來標示在原文中的大寫字母現在用小寫(’The court ruled that “[e]xistence of the subject matter of the contract precluded a finding of force majeure”.’).

What is a Legal Memo?

A legal memo or a legal memorandum is a specific type of essay dealing with a legal issue. The legal memo is usually written and researched by a paralegal, a law student, or lawyer. It contains these basic elements: statement of facts, issues, conclusions, discussions of the law pertaining to facts, citations of previous applicable cases, and recommendations based on this discussion.

Order of the information contained in a legal memo can differ. Usually one begins with a statement of facts. This section of the legal memo is usually a brief but succinct paragraph that states the relevant facts at hand. A statement of legal issues that underlie the facts tends to follow the statement of facts.

At this point, a conclusion may be offered which will direct the discussion of previous cases dealing with the stated issues in the legal memo. Alternately, the conclusion may come at the end of a legal memo. Format depends upon the law firm for which one is practicing or working, or the way in which a law school dictates format if one is writing a sample legal memo.

A conclusion can then be followed by a discussion of all relevant examples of law, or rulings that prove a conclusion and suggest logical recommendations. This section involves a great deal of research to show that the lawyer is justified in taking whatever position she does. Everything must be cited according to the preferences of the firm or school.

Based on discussion and citation, the legal memo may conclude with recommendations on how to proceed, and how best to help a client with a legal issue. Generally, the legal memo is just a part of the legal process.

A longer version of the legal memo, which may be presented to a judge when numerous decisions must be made, is a legal brief, citing all relevant sources that “prove” an attorney’s stance on the law. These briefs, like the legal memo, support arguments for certain kinds of rights and rulings accorded to a client.

To the layperson, the legal memo is just one way in which lawyers gather research to effectively argue or settle a case. It is similar to a research paper, but tends to be organized into very clear sections, and is law specific.

The Format of a Legal Office Memorandum

Most memoranda share a common format: a heading, an issue, a short answer, a statement of facts, a discussion, and a conclusion.

The Heading consists of four lines: to, from, date, and subject (re:). You should include your client’s name as well as a descriptive subject in the re: line, as each client file typically will require multiple memoranda.

The Issue section usually contains a statement of the issue the memo addresses. Sometimes the issue is called the “question presented.”

The Short Answer answers the question presented succinctly and should supply a summary of the key reasons supporting the answer.

The Statement of Facts section, often shortened to “Facts,” includes an objective statement of the client’s facts that are pertinent to the issue described in the memo.

The Discussion section collects and describes the law, both favorable and unfavorable, applicable to the client’s situation.

The Conclusion is a short section summarizing the contents of the entire memo. It pulls together the most critical facts and legal analysis into a few sentences. In shorter memoranda, lawyers commonly omit the conclusion.

If you follow this format, you will be well on your way to writing a well-organized legal office memorandum.

what is the purpose of a Legal Office Memo?

Most memoranda serve one of two functions: analyzing a client’s specific legal problem or answering questions that the client’s particular situation poses. Before writing, a lawyer will research the applicable mandatory (binding) case law and the persuasive (nonbinding) case law to determine the legal landscape. The lawyer will also review any applicable statutory provisions or regulatory issuances from administrative bodies.

After finishing the research process, the lawyer will then interpret the client’s situation in light of the applicable law. An office memorandum sums up the lawyer’s analysis and supplies the facts the lawyer relied upon in reaching the conclusion. The main point of the memorandum should be to advise whether a client can lawfully engage in conduct or predict how a decision maker will rule on a legal problem.

The intended audience for the memo should not have to read the cases, statutes, or regulations the memo discusses to understand the legal landscape. Rather, the point of the memo is to summarize the pertinent law in a digestible, short format that encapsulates the situation succinctly for the reader. After a brief review of the office memorandum, an attorney who was formerly unfamiliar with the case law should be able to give well-founded advice to a client. Ensuring the memo follows a prescribed format keeps it easy for the reader to find the information he or she needs.?

法律英語中冒號和分號的使用

冒號 (Colons)

冒號通常用來指出跟在其后面的信息。它也可以用作兩個句子之間的連接。下面給出一些使用方法的例子:

1. 在一份清單之前使用冒號。(如,’The following items are included:’)

2. 當介紹主題中的某一個步驟,或者從一個普通的講述轉移到某個具體的情景時使用冒號。(如,’The remedy is simple: introduce new rules.’).

3. 在顯示因果關系的時候使用冒號。Cause and effect(如,’The argument used by the defence was as follows:’).

分號 (Semicolons)

當用逗號不能把句子中各個部分明顯分開的時候,或者句中各部分聯系過于緊密的時候,就要考慮使用分號來把句子分開。如:”To err is human; to forgive, divine’.

在法律英語寫作和翻譯中,如果遇到比較長的句子由很多從句或者段落組成,這個時候,我們就要在這些從句或者段落的尾部使用分號。但是如果比較長的句子由分句或者段落結尾,那么使用句號會更加合適。