張法連教授談法律英語證書(LEC)考試

在‘法律英語的學習與測試’學術講座上,中國政法大學的張法連教授談到LEC-法律英語證書考試。

LEC考試實際上是引進美國的Bar考試,然后加入了法律翻譯和case reading兩個部分。但是題目的難以不一樣,考試側重法律英語水平測試。

法律英語證書考試為什么考美國法?

美國是世界上法律體系最完善的國家,美國法的一些標準在國際規則和國際法里面運用的很多。它的影響比較大,所以是采用測試美國法。學習美國法就能學到比較標準地道的法律英語,而不是說我們把中國(法律)翻譯成英文,那樣非常不地道。

關于法律英語證書(LEC)考試

考試分試卷一和試卷二,各需三個小時完成。試卷一為選擇題。試卷二是主觀題,包括案例閱讀、翻譯和法務寫作三項。

試卷(一), 客觀題(單選題),共100道小題,每題1分。

本部分試題有以下兩部分內容組成:美國法基本知識(90-95%)和邏輯推理(5-10%)
難易程度比例設置:容易題目占50%,中等難度試題占30%,高難度試題占20%。
(1)、美國基本法知識各部門法所占比例設置:合同法10-15%;憲法2-4%;侵權法10-15%;證據法5-7%;民事程序法2-4%;刑事程序法2-4%;知識產權法5-7%;商事組織法10-15%;證券法5-7%;財產法10-15%;票據法2-4%;刑法10-15%。
(2)、邏輯推理(5-10%)
試卷(二), 主觀題,有案件閱讀、翻譯和法務寫作三部分,每部分各占25分、40分和35分。
難易程度比例設置:中等難度試題占80%,高難度試題占20%。
(1)、案件閱讀 (case reading and comprehension)共25分
  本部分試題包括一篇美國真實案例。要求應試者在準確、快速閱讀案例后,根據獲得的案例中的信息簡略回答有關問題。

(2)、翻譯(Translation)共40分
本部分試題有兩節,Section A 和Section B。Section A 是中譯英,Section B 是英譯中,各占20分。

(3)、法務寫作(Legal Writing)共35分
要求應試者根據所給信息,用英文撰寫一封律師函,或寫一篇法律備忘錄(Law Office Memo);或根據所提供的案例,代表某一方寫一篇案件辯論書(Case Brief)。

政法大學法律英語精品課程(視頻)

中國政法大學沙麗金教授主講,主要講述法律英語的一些特點和基礎知識,涉及到Plain English, 法律拉丁詞匯,法律翻譯時易錯詞解析,由淺入深,知識量豐富。本課程用英文講授,適合有一定英語和法律翻譯基礎的朋友學習參考。

一、Characteristics of legal English 法律英語的特點

  1. Lengthy and complex sentences 長句和復雜句
  2. Archaic words and expressions 古詞語表達
  3. Latin Words 拉丁語使用(如Versus, Per se 本身,De facto – De facto marriage 事實婚姻,Stare Decisis 遵循先例原則,Pro forma等)

二、Plain English and Terms 簡明法律英語

Ask – Request

Because – In view of the fact that

Before – Prior to

Carry out – Implement

Cause – Give rise to

Come – Emanate

Explain – Clarify

Give – Make a donation of

If – In the event of

三、Terms in Legal Context 專業術語

He possesses a good title to the house – complete ownership

They initiated a class action in the court

Both his personal property and real property have been involved in the lawsuit

The invention should be different from the prior art – 現有技術

四、Terms with Special Meanings 特殊意義的詞

侵權 tort/infringement ?– ?(IPR Intellectual Property Rights)the infringement against the copy right (patent, trademark, etc)

裁決 verdict/judgment – verdict (made by jury)/ judgment (made by judge)

起訴狀:information/indictment – information (charging document issued by prosecutor)/indictment(issue by grand jury)

規定 stipulates(in contract) / prescribe(in Law)

起訴 sue(civil cases)/charge(criminal cases)

Frisk and stop (criminal procedure)

Arrest (criminal procedure)

商貿法律英語 合同基本條款 (視頻)

Commercial and Legal English 商貿法律英語

Elementary Articles of Contract 合同基本條款

法律英語視頻系列教程

基礎法律英語系列

實用法律英語系列

商貿法律英語系列

一 法律基礎知識 一 勞動法 一 公司法
二 法律的分類 二 財產法 二 票據法
三 犯罪的分類 三 家庭婚姻法 三 國際貿易術語
四 證據 四 繼承法 四 合同基本條款

實用法律英語 家庭婚姻法 (視頻)

Applied Legal English 實用法律英語

Family and Marital?Law 家庭婚姻法

法律英語視頻系列教程

基礎法律英語系列

實用法律英語系列

商貿法律英語系列

一 法律基礎知識 一 勞動法 一 公司法
二 法律的分類 二 財產法 二 票據法
三 犯罪的分類 三 家庭婚姻法 三 國際貿易術語
四 證據 四 繼承法 四 合同基本條款

Words and expressions:

* Marriage 婚姻

* Marital communications privilege 婚姻特權

* Age of consent 結婚年齡,承諾年齡

* Spousal right 婚姻權

* Matrimonial action 婚姻訴訟

* Bigamy 重婚

* Spousal support 離婚贍養費

* Void marriage 無效婚姻

* Valid marriage 有效婚姻

* Minor children 未成年子女

* Marital property law 婚姻財產法

* Divorce 離婚

* Grounds for divorce 離婚理由

* Abandoned child/spouse 被遺棄的孩子或配偶

* Legal effect 法律效力

* Annulment of a marriage宣告婚姻無效

* Filiations 私生子父親的確定

* Assilimilation…to…視同…

* Legitimate children 婚生子女

* Absolute divorce 絕對離婚。在美國一些州,還有其它的方式結束婚姻,如法律上的分居和解除婚約。

* Separation and relieve the engagement 分居和解除婚約

Passage:

Family law covers marriage formation; the legal effects of marriage; marriage termination by divorce, separation and annulment, filiations, and family support obligations。

In all the other parts of family law, extensive code revision has taken place under the influence of three major trends:

1). Liberalization of divorce

2). The equalization of the position of women in the areas of family-decision making and property right.;

3). The assilimilation of the status of children born outside legal marriage to that of legitimate children.

The legal regime is typically a form of community property, usually with pre-marital property and property acquired through gift or inheritance keep separate if it can be identified as such. The modern trend favor forms of the so-called “deferred community”, in which the spouses are treated as separate owners of whatever they respectively acquire during the marriage. But property acquired during the marriage is divided equally upon its termination by divorce or death.

家庭法包括婚姻的成立,婚姻的法律效力,由于離婚,分居,宣告婚姻無效所致的婚姻終止,私生子父親的確定,以及家庭成員的撫養義務。

三個主要的趨勢影響到家庭法的修改:1). 離婚的自由化;? 2). 婦女在家庭決策中的平等地位以及財產權方面的平等化;3). 非婚生子女與婚生子女地位平等。

這種法律制度的典型形式是共同財產制度。通常來說,婚前財產以及若能證明一方通過贈予或獲得的財產,猶為各自所有。現代趨勢贊同的是所謂的“延遲的共同財產制”,指夫婦雙方被視為是他們婚姻有續期間分別取得的財產的獨立所有人。但由于離婚或死亡而造成的婚姻關系終止時,則要求均分婚姻存續期間取得的財產。

Supplementary points:

Void marriage: a void marriage is one that void and invalid from its beginning. It is as though the marriage never existed and it requires no formality to terminate it. 無效婚姻是指婚姻從一開始就是無效的,好像它從未存在過,并且終止這個婚姻不需要任何的形式和規定。

Spousal right: spousal right is an entitlement that is legally enforceable. 婚姻權是指一個配偶可以從另一個配偶處繼承財產的權利。

Matrimonial action: matrimonial action refers to a lawsuit for the purpose of establishing or altering the marital status of the parties through an annulment or a divorce. 婚姻訴訟是指為了建立或改變婚姻當事人的關系而通過宣告婚姻結束或離婚而進行的訴訟。

Grounds for divorce: grounds for divorce is the legal reason a divorce is granted. There are two kinds of grounds: fault or no fault. 離婚理由是指批準離婚的合法原因,有兩種理由:過錯或無過錯。

Bigamy: bigamy is the act of marrying a second time while one is still married to an other person. 重婚是一場婚姻繼續存在的時候又與別人結婚的行為。

Dialogue:

Divorce in the United States:

– Must the person who seeks an absolute divorce fulfill certain residence requirements?

尋求絕對離婚的人需要有某種居住要求嗎?

– Yes, each of the states has a specific requirement. The party who seeks a divorce under the laws of one state must actually have resided in the state or county where the divorce suit is filed for the time required by statue.

是的,每個州都有具體的規定。根據某州的法律尋求離婚的當事人必

須在該州或縣居住夠法定期限。

– Are there any restrictions on remarriage by the parties to a divorce?

對離婚當事人的再婚有什么限制?

– In some states the parties to a divorce cannot remarry with a certain period of time unless they remarry each other.

在某些州當事人在離婚后的一段期限內不得再婚,除非與前妻或前夫復

婚。

– What are the grounds for an absolute divorce in the fifty states?

在五十個州絕對離婚的理由是什么?

– Variously depending on the state, adultery, alcoholism, cruelty, desertion, fraud, imprisonment, incompatibility, indignities, separation and irreconcilable differences leading to breakdown of marriage.

各州的情況不同,通奸,酗酒,虐待,遺棄,欺騙,監禁,不和,侮辱,分居和難于和解的差異都會導致婚姻的破裂。

– A wife confess to her husband that she has committed adultery. He forgives her, continues to live with her, and has sexual relation with her. Later, he changes his mind, and seeks to obtain a divorce. Will he succeed?

妻子承認與人通奸,丈夫原諒她,繼續和她生活并與她有性關系。但后來丈夫又改變了主意,要離婚。他能成功嗎?

– No. in forgiving the adultery, the husband forfeited his right to a divorce on his ground. However, should the wife again commit the adultery after the forgiveness, the husband would have an action, since the forgiveness is merely conditioned on the wife’s future behavior.

不能,原諒了她就表示放棄了通奸這個離婚的理由。但是如果妻子在得到寬恕后又與人通奸,丈夫就有這個權利,因為原諒僅僅以妻子未來的行為為條件。

– What constitutes personal indignities? 什么是人身侮辱?

– Personal indignities usually consist of a course of conduct calculated to make the life of the complaining party intolerable. They may consist of acts of rudeness, haughtiness, and humiliating insults, abusive language and so on… In mental cruelty the act complained of is dangerous to the health or life of the spouse; In personal indignities, all that is necessary is to prove that the acts of one spouse make the other’s life unbearable. www.ppzljb.tw

人身侮辱通常指故意使原告一方的生活無法忍受的行為過程,這些行為可能是粗暴,輕蔑,侮辱,冒犯和謾罵等等。精神折磨的行為是對配偶的健康或生活有危險的被控行為。所有的人身侮辱行為都要證明是配偶無法忍受的。

– What are incompatibility or irreconcilable differences which have caused marital breakdown?

什么是導致婚姻破裂的不可調和的或難于和解的矛盾?

– In any of the states where either of these is a ground for divorce, a decree will be granted when it is conclusively shown that the married couple is incapable of existing together in peace and harmony. The incompatibility may be sexual, intellectual, financial, religious, or temperamental.? Basically, incompatibility or irreconcilable differences should be the only grounds for divorce in a civilized society since they go to the very essence of marriage validity.

在任何一州,以上任何原因都可以是離婚的理由,當最后表明夫婦確實不能和睦相處時,則判決離婚. 不和可能是性,智力,金錢,宗教或性格的原因。性情不和應該是文明社會中離婚的唯一理由,因為它才是婚姻行之有效的關鍵。

– Is what way is fraud a ground for divorce?

什么是以欺騙為離婚的理由?

– Fraud, as a ground for divorce, is the use of any deceitful practice or device to induce one person to marry another.

這是指一方以欺騙的行為或方法誘使另一方結婚.

– Is the rate of divorce increasing or falling in the United States?

– It is increasing because of the changing views towards marriage.