法律英語中shall的各種譯法

現有英語法律和合同條文的主句成分中的shall,在漢語中有很多種譯法。通常被譯成“須”、“應”,有時被譯成“應當”,也有時譯成“要”、“將”、“可”,還有被譯成“必須”,甚至被完全忽略不譯的。試看以下各例。

1. The Chief justice of the Court of Final Appeal and the Chief Judge of the High Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be Chinese citizens who are permanent residents of the Region. In addition to the procedure prescribed in Articles 88 and 89 of this law, the appointment and removal of judges of the Court of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be made by the Chief Executive with the endorsement of the Legislative Council of the Region and reported to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for the record.

香港特別行政區終審法院和高等法院的首席法官,由在外國無居留權的香港特別行政區永久性居民中的中國居民擔任。除本法第八十八條和第八十九條規定的程式外,香港特別行政區終審法院和高等法院首席法官的任命和免職,還由行政長官征得立法會同意,并報全國人民代表大會常務委員會備案。(香港特別行政區基本法

2.…the election or recall of chief procurators of people’s procuratorates shall be reported to the chief procurators of the people’s procuratorates at the next higher level for submission to the standing committees of the people’s congresses at the corresponding level for approval.

選出或罷免人民檢察長,報上級人民檢察院檢察長提請該級人民代表大會常務委員會批準。(憲法)

3.Shipment: The Date of the Bill of Lading shall be accepted as a conclusive evidence of the date of shipment.

付運:提貨單的日期被承認為付運日期的確實證據。

4.One who instigates others to commit a crime shall be punished according to the role he plays in the joint crime. One who instigates a person under the age of eighteen to commit a crime shall be given a heavier punishment.

教唆他人犯罪的,應當按照他在共同犯罪中起的作用處罰。教唆不滿十八歲的人犯罪的,應當從重處罰。(刑法

5.If the Buyers fail to notify and/or forward full details within the period specified above, the Buyers shall be deemed to have waived their right to assert any claim.

如果買方未能在上述規定的期間內通知和(或)寄出完整的細節,那么買方被認為放棄提出任何索賠的權利。

6.In the event the Buyers’ such appointment does not arrive in time, the Sellers’ system of inspection shall be final and binding upon the parties concerned.

萬一買方對這種委托未能及時到達,賣方的檢查制度是決定性的并對有關各方有約束力。

7.Quantity, unless otherwise arranged, shall be subject to a variation of 5% plus or minus at Seller’s option.

量:除非另作安排,量由賣方選擇作加或減5%的變動。

8. …Such compensation shall correspond to the real value of the property concerned and shall be freely convertible and paid without undue delay.

…征用財產的補償相當于該財產當時的實際價值,自由兌換,不得無故遲延支付。

9.The Purchaser shall, upon receipt of Corporation’s respective invoices therefor, pay to Corporation all amounts which become due by the Purchaser to the Corporation hereunder, including without limitation an amount equal to the taxes and duties.

收到公司的各種發票后,買方必須立刻付給公司已到期應付的所有款項,包括各種稅收費用在內,不得有例外。

10.The contractor shall be entitled to use for the purpose of the works such supplies of electricity and water as may be available therefor on the site and shall pay the purchaser such as may be reasonable in the circumstances, and shall at his own expense provide any apparatus necessary for such use.

承包商有權利用工地上原有的供電供水進行施工,但向業主交納合理的水電費,并自己承擔用去安裝供電供水所需儀表。

11.The Board shall have such jurisdiction and powers as are conferred on it by this or any other Ordinance.

仲裁處具備本條例或任何其他條例授予仲裁處的司法管轄權及權利。

12.All Hong Kong residents shall be equal before the law.

香港居民在法律面前一律平等。

綜上所述:shall的譯法顯然五花八門,至少有八種之多。例1將shall譯成“應”和“須”,例2、例3譯成“須”(或“須”被譯成shall);例4將shall譯成“應當”;例5、例6譯成“將”;例7、例8譯成“可”和“應”;例9則譯成“必須”;在例10中,其中一處不譯、另一處譯成“須”,后一處譯成“要”;而最后兩例,即例11、12,不譯,即在漢語文本里找不到對應的譯文。

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