法律英語詞匯分類六 同行之間的內行話

術語可以是對內的,即對從事同一行業的人士,如律師對律師或法官對律師;但也可以是對外的,即對律師的客戶和法律所服務的對象,即普通民眾。行話(argot)則不然,它是完全對內的,即同行的語言,雖然有時并非是故意要將行外人士排斥在外。狀辭、法律觀點、法庭辯論詞、談判詞,屬于典型的行內法律文書。合同,給陪審團的法律指引、法庭通知,甚至包括對象為一般公眾的法例、法律、法令,公司規章和章程,屬于對外的法律文書。前者可以使用大量行話;后者一般只允許使用法律術語或專業術語。以下是常用的法律行話用語:

alleged, alter ego, argumentative, at issue, bail exonerated, Blackacre, breaking and entering, came on for hearing, case, cause of action, damages, due care, four corners of the instrument, inferior court, issue of fact, issue of law, pierce the corporate veil, purported, pursuant to stipulation, record, reversed and remanded, superior court, well settled, without prejudice.

另外,在翻譯法律文件中,經常會碰到下面的這些累贅詞:

acknowledge and confess, aid and abet, aid and comfort, alter and change, authorize and empower, breaking and entering, cancel annul and set aside, cease and desist, deem and consider, each and all, each and every, fair and equitable, false and untrue, final and conclusive, fit and proper, force and effect, forgive and pardon, fraud and deceit, free and clear, full and complete, full true and correct, give devise and bequeath, goods and chattels, had and received, have and hold, hold and keep, hue and cry, keep and maintain, let or hindrance, mind and memory, new and novel, null and void, remise release and quitclaim, request and require, rest residue and remainder, right interest and title, save and except, seriously and gravely, sole and exclusive, will and testament.

在翻譯這類短語時,譯者需要確定其中哪一個詞屬于常用的現代英語中的普通詞,譯者需要譯的便是這個普通詞。例如,在rest, residue and remainder這三聯詞組中,最常用的普通詞是rest,因此需要翻譯的就是這個普通詞,其他兩個詞(residue和remainder)可以在譯文中予以忽略。倘若某個三聯詞組,在同一法律文件中多次出現,每次需要翻譯時只能挑選其中的一個詞。如在上例中,當該詞組在文內第一次出現時,譯者選了rest來翻譯,第二次出現時,就不可以挑選任何其他兩個詞(residue或remainder)來作不同的翻譯。因為在法律翻譯中需要盡可能保持上下文用詞的一致性,以免引起讀者對相同概念的不必要猜測。

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