法律英語詞匯分類二 一如既往的古舊詞匯

當今普通英語的詞匯主要來自古代及中世紀時期的英語,但今日大部分的英語詞匯的意義與一千多年前、甚至幾百年前已經大不相同,用法也大不一樣。但是,在如今的法律英語中,許多這類詞匯的意義及其用法仍然一如既往、千年不變。試看一下一段合約:

例1. Provided further that this Policy shall be subject to the Conditions herein contained and to any Memoranda endorsed hereon and such Conditions and Memoranda are to be taken as part of the Policy and the observance and performance by the Insured of the times and terms therein contained so far as they relate to anything to be done by the Insured are of the essence of this contract and shall be conditions precedent to any liability on the part of the Insured under this Policy.

上訴合約條款選自一份現代的保險合約,但其中herein, hereon, such以及thereon全是普通英文中廢棄的典型的古舊副詞,而其他舊式用法還有provided that , subject to 等。以下這些仍然是當代法律英語中常用的古舊副詞:

aforesaid, forth with;

here words: hereafter, hereby, herein, hereinafter, hereinbefore, hereof, hereto, heretofore, hereunder, herewith;

let (如在without let or hindrance這個短語中)

said (作形容詞使用時)

pursuant to, such, thence, thenceforth;

there words: thereabout, thereafter, thereat, thereby, therefor, therefore, therein, thereon, thereto, theretofore, thereunto (相當于in the document/place referred to), thereunder, thereupon, therewith;

where words: whereas (相當于”given the fact that”), whereat, whereby, whereof;

witness (以簽名或宣誓方式作證時用,如In witness whereof, I have set my hand)

witnesseth (意為提供某事的正式證據,在古英語的陳述句中,該詞作為第三人稱單數的動詞)

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