淺析法律翻譯中的動詞名詞化現象

名詞化現象在法律文件漢譯英中比較普遍,因為名詞化能夠使句子更簡潔和清晰明了。請看下例:

例1. 附加刑的種類如下:The types of supplementary punishments are:

(一)罰金;1. fines

(二)剝削政治權利;2. deprivation of political rights; and

(三)沒收財產。3. confiscation of property.

附加刑也可以獨立適用。(刑法第34條)Supplementary punishment may also be applied independently.

漢語動詞剝奪和沒收分別譯為英語名詞deprivation和confiscation.

例2. 對于犯罪情節輕微不需要判處刑罰的,可以免于刑事處分,但可以根據條件的不同情況,予以訓誡或者責令具結悔過、賠禮道歉、賠償損失、或者主管部門予以行政處分。(刑法第37條)

Where the circumstances of a person’s crime are minor and do not require sentencing for punishment, an exemption from criminal sanctions may be granted him, but he may, according to the different circumstances of each case, be reprimanded or ordered to make a statement of repentance or formal apology, or make compensation for losses, or be subjected to administrative sanctions by the competent department.

上述條款的一個漢語動詞被譯為英語名詞并后接一個介詞。換言之,動 – 賓結構變成名詞 – 介詞 – 名詞結構。很多情況下經常介詞of, 比如:to confiscate property – confiscation of property; to enact a new tax Law – enactment of a new tax law; to implement the rules and regulations – implementation of the rules and regulations等等。如果動詞句型是動 – 賓 – 介, 那么介詞的選擇取決于原來的動詞和介詞搭配,比如:

to deprive … of … – deprivation of political rights;

to exempt … from … – exemption from criminal sanctions;

to compensate … for… – compensation for losses 等等。

再繼續看下面這個例句,注意英譯文中的名詞化現象。

例3. 在中國境內設立合營企業,必須經中華人民共和國對外經濟貿易部審批。

The establishment of a joint venture in China is subject to examination and approval by the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade of the People’s Republic of China.

例4. 本規定由國家版權局負責解釋。

The interpretation of these Provisions shall be the responsibility of the National Copyright Administration of China.

上訴幾個例句中的法律條款表明動詞名詞化常用在法律文件中,因為這能達到客觀的效果。雖然法律寫作提倡使用“基本的動詞”,但是名詞化仍然是一種法律寫作風格。使用名詞化時要注意法律主體和法律主觀要件要清晰無誤。

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